Does this affect mental health?
Sample Research Papers Introduction Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelization disorder of the central nervous system and the spinal cord; which leads to patches of plaques in the regions of the brain and spinal cord.
There are five common types of multiple sclerosis: Causes of multiple sclerosis may vary; however, research has linked many different causes to the onset of MS. The most common symptoms and limitations for multiple sclerosis patients are fatigue, muscle weakness, difficulty walking, and loss of vision Silverthorn, Patients may also experience stiffness and spacticity, balance and coordination impairment, bladder or bowel dysfunction, cognitive or emotional disturbances, or pain.
Each individual may experience one or more symptoms sporadically, with temporary periods of remission Whitney, Thus, limitations depend on the severity of the MS or if the MS is in remission or exacerbation state.
Since MS is a neurological disease, many limitations are caused by a lack of neuromuscular control. One limitation for MS patients is spacticity.
Since the patient becomes more spastic and loses control of voluntary muscle, it becomes harder for them to control desired movement plans. Gait becomes a problem because the MS patient cannot always control the appropriate muscles needed to effectively and efficiently loco mote.
Efficiency of movement is also a limitation among patients with MS. Most MS patients become tired or weak due the amount of energy it takes to control muscle activity. Weakness is due to poor transmission of electrical impulse, thus server uphill locomotion may only fatigue the nerve and further increase the muscle weakness.
However, Randall and Schapiro found that patients with MS who perform well balance exercises that involve weight lifting or repetitive movements of muscles to the point of fatigue do not increase their muscular strength.
Rather they increase weakness and fatigue. Muscle fatigue leads to unproductive gait as well as putting the patient at a higher risk of injury due to the fact that fatigue often leads to nausea and disorientation.
This in turn could lead the MS patient to even higher risk of injuring themselves because they are even less aware of there surrounding environment. Another limitation for MS patients is muscle weakness.
For many MS patients pain becomes a major issue as the condition begins to worsen. Thus, this causes muscle to weaken dramatically due to the fact that pain causes the patients to move less, and in turn leads to muscle atrophy. Since there is a decrease in muscle mass and strength the ability, gait also becomes altered.
InBaum and Rothschild found thatpeople were reportedly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Women were stated to be three times more likely than men to get MS Whitney, Over time it seems the prevalence of this disease has not increased sharply within the general population of Americans, although the likelihood of a female being diagnosed with the disease is increasing.
This may be due to environmental or genetic risk factors. Purpose Locomotion is the most basic and yet most essential part of a human transportation.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on how Multiple Sclerosis effects gait pattern. This was used to rule out obesity. Eight muscles were identified for either the swing phase or stance phase.
Swing muscles were anterior tibialis, hamstrings, quadriceps and hip flexors; Stance muscles included the gastronomies, quadriceps, adductors, gluteus medius and gluteus maximums.
Goldfarb, et al found that patients with Amyotrophic MS spend less time in the swing phase and more time in stance phase. Therefore, walking velocity decreased in patients Amyotrophic MS. They also found there was no correlation between velocity of walking and the following: Another study on MS looked at the effects of an aquatic exercise program on gait parameters.
All subjects participated in a 10 week aquatic exercise program consisting of aqua-calisthenics and freestyle swimming. They also found that patients with MS have less vertical lift when walking. Thus, according to there research aquatic fitness programs have no major effect on improving or impairing studied gait parameters.Authors abstract various longer works, including book proposals, dissertations, and online journal articles.
There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents all the main arguments and important results.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 2 Abstract Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. No one really knows what causes the disease and there is no cure and there is not one specific test that can diagnose Multiple Sclerosis. Research Paper on Multiple Sclerosis Introducti on Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelizati on disorder of the central nervous system and the spinal cord; which leads to patches of plaques in the regi on s of the brain and spinal cord.
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Causes of multiple sclerosis may vary; however, research has linked many different causes to the onset of MS.
Causes may include: a virus causing demyelization, violent trauma to the head or spinal cord, and or an immune system attack which cause the body to attack the myelin sheaths around the neurons in the ascending and descending pathways.