Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level.
Breast cancer risk is increased with obesity mainly for women who are postmenopausal. The range of cancer types is broad, including esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in both men and women.
In, prostate and stomach cancers are more frequent with increasing BMI, while in women breast, uterus, cervix, and ovarian cancers are more frequent. Calle et al, Diabetes Mellitus In the U.
A characteristic pathologic finding in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas can be seen in association with type II diabetes mellitus. A major complication of diabetes mellitus results from the accelerated, advanced atherosclerosis. Metabolic Syndrome The global epidemic of obesity and diabetes mellitus has led to a marked increase in the number of persons worldwide with metabolic syndrome.
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome share common features, and patients may be defined as having one or both. Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, or the insulin resistance syndrome, is defined as follows Eckel et al, Diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, plus 2 or more of the following: Therapeutic goals and recommendations include: Institute a regular program of physical activity that includes 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise daily.
Reduce intake of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol. Stop smoking Coronary Artery Disease Persons with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for accelerated and advanced atherosclerosis that increases the risk for coronary artery disease that can lead to myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction.
However, even obese persons who do not have hyperglycemia can have an increased risk for coronary atherosclerosis.
Stampfer et al, Atherosclerosis is potentially reversible. Ornish et al, Hypertension and Stroke Persons who are obese tend to have an increased blood pressure.
Hypertension that is untreated can increase the risk for heart failurekidney failure, and stroke.
Though not included in this study, risks for men are increased as well. National Task Force, The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their complications increases as the amount of dietary sodium increases.
It is estimated that if adults from 40 to 85 years of age in the U. Smith-Spangler et al, Cardiomyopathy Some obese patients who have little or no coronary artery disease and do not have a history of hypertension may still develop heart failure.
In these patients, the heart is globally enlarged, similar to a dilated cardiomyopathy. If such persons lose weight, the heart diminishes in size. This obesity cardiomyopathy may be related to blood volume expansion or other factors.
Dietary patterns play a role in the development of steatosis fatty change in the liver.Some will need general training (for example, in health promotion), while those who provide interventions for obesity (such as dietary treatment and physical training) will . The DDT home site features information on CDC's efforts on diabetes prevention and control.
World Health. Department of Chronic DiseDepartment of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotionases and Health Promotion Organization.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in . Of these, 90 to 95% are classified as diabetes mellitus type II (DM type II), the type associated with obesity. About 80 to 90% of persons with type II diabetes mellitus are obese. About two-thirds of persons with DM type II have a BMI of at least 27, and half of persons with DM type II have a BMI of at least Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
grupobittia.com; of substantial increases in prevalence of diabetes-related complications in part due to the rise in rates of obesity; These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health.
Context Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States.. Objective To estimate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among US adults in Design, Setting, and Participants Random-digit telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older residing in all states participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in .