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Northwestern University This paper examines the five-factor model, a tool used for dimensionally studying personality.
Aspects of the model given attention include the specific variables in the model, other related models, and clinical applications of the model.
The quality of the model is then evaluated based on five criteria: Ultimately, it is evident that the model fits most of the criteria for greatness, but falls somewhat short of being a great theory in personality because it is not truly a theory. The Model One of the long held goals of psychology has been to establish a model that can conveniently describe human personality, and disorders therein, with the intent to use this model in the remedying of personality disorders and improving general understanding of personality.
Currently, a handful of models have risen to prominence, and have thus far stood the test of time. Some models are more generally accepted than others.
Support for some models seems to come and go in cycles. One of the more prominent models in contemporary psychology is what is known as the five-factor model of personality Digman, This theory incorporates five different variables into a conceptual model for describing personality. These five different factors are often referred to as the "Big 5" Ewen,p.
The five-factor theory is among the newest models developed for the description of personality, and this model shows promise to be among the most practical and applicable models available in the field of personality psychology Digman, Thorough critical attention is given to the proposal that the five-factor model is in fact a great theory.
The Five Factors As it became evident to many psychologists that, mathematically, combinations of five factors were useful in describing personality, there was a need to clearly define what these factors were. Indeed, this process led to some dissent in the ranks.
One dissenter from the five-factor theorists was renowned psychologist H. Eysenck felt that, due to overlaps in the five factors and their correlates, in fact a three-factor model was more appropriate and accurate.
His theory is called the PEN model which stand for psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism Eysenck,or sometimes is even shortened to the two factor E-IN model extroversion-introversion, neuroticism Eysenck, According to Eysenck, "Factor analysis has improved the situation However, of the major "factor-analytic models Through extensive debating and experimenting, there is currently a general consensus in the realms of scholarly psychology as to the identity of the five factors, and their basic interpretations and values to analysis of personality.
The five factors are extroversion-introversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness Ewen, Extroversion also is sometimes referred to as social adaptability, though the popularity of this term seems to be waning Zuckerman, Extroversion is defined as "a trait characterized by a keen interest in other people and external events, and venturing forth with confidence into the unknown" Ewen,p.
Neuroticism is the other trait to play a role in most of the contemporary factor models for personality. In some studies, adjustment is examined as a factor, instead of neuroticism. In this case, higher scores will indicate a positive result, consistent with the other four factors.
This is because the term neuroticism has an inherent negative denotation Bradshaw, The bases of neuroticism are levels of anxiety and volatility.
Within these bounds, neuroticism is "a dimension of personality defined by stability and low anxiety at one end as opposed to instability and high anxiety at the other end" Pervin,p.
Openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all terms with which most people outside the realm of psychology are familiar. In general, openness refers to how willing people are to make adjustments in notions and activities in accordance with new ideas or situations.
Agreeableness measures how compatible people are with other people, or basically how able they are to get along with others. Conscientiousness refers to how much a person considers others when making decisions. These three scales, like neuroticism and extroversion, slide between their limits to give a clear picture of personality.
The limits of these scales give a clear idea of their applications and are defined as "trusting and helpful versus suspicious and uncooperative agreeablenesshard working and reliable versus lazy and careless conscientiousnessand nonconformist and creative versus conventional and down-to-earth openness " Ewen,p.
Clinical Use of the Five Factors With the five factors themselves more or less firmly established, the model is of little importance to psychology if it can not somehow be applied.Jun 22, · The chosen theoretical approach that I will utilize in developing TinaShazzy's personality is the behavioral domain, which suggests that an individual's behavior is a reflection of his/her personality trait since personality is behavior (Phelps, ).
Essays on Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory, Princeton: Princeton University Press. –––, a, “Plato’s Theory of Human Motivation,” in Cooper , ch. 5. –––, b, “The Psychology of Justice in Plato,” in Cooper , ch.
A conventional personality type is neat, orderly and practical, and enjoys working with data (facts, figures, and numbers) in structured settings. Take a free personality test to learn more about your work preferences and test personality. Possible occupations that fit a conventional personality type.
This anxiety is beyond that which is expected for the individual's developmental level. The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent, lasting at least 4 weeks in children and adolescents and typically 6 months or more in adults.
Children with separation anxiety disorder tend to come from families that are close-knit. My Personality Traits I have a wide variety of personality traits that are good, bad or neutral. The good ones I have are being creative, having an open mind and being sociable. My bad ones are being vengeful, sometimes having a bad temper, impatient and being forgetful.
Popkins' essay on five-factor theories of personality is a relatively good introduction to the basic idea, but falls short of being a good survey and analysis of the related literature.
He describes one popular set of five factors, the "OCEAN" model, and also discusses some common criticisms of this and factor theories in general.