Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period.
A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.
Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography—see the bottom of the next pagebut more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their Conducting a preliminary literature review essay and weaknesses are.
As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept e. It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review lets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas information seeking: A literature review must do these things be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known identify areas of controversy in the literature formulate questions that need further research Ask yourself questions like these: What is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review helps to define?
What type of literature review am I conducting? Am I looking at issues of theory? What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using e.
What discipline am I working in e. How good was my information seeking? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material?
Have I critically analysed the literature I use?
Do I follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in the ways they deal with them? Instead of just listing and summarizing items, do I assess them, discussing strengths and weaknesses?
Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective? Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful? Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: Is it clearly defined?
Is its significance scope, severity, relevance clearly established? Could the problem have been approached more effectively from another perspective?
What is the relationship between the theoretical and research perspectives? Does the author include literature taking positions she or he does not agree with?
In a research study, how good are the basic components of the study design e. How accurate and valid are the measurements?
Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis? In material written for a popular readership, does the author use appeals to emotion, one-sided examples, or rhetorically-charged language and tone?
How does the author structure the argument? In what ways does this book or article contribute to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? How does this book or article relate to the specific thesis or question I am developing?
A literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another. Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. You are not trying to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question If you are writing an annotated bibliography, you may need to summarize each item briefly, but should still follow through themes and concepts and do some critical assessment of material.
Use an overall introduction and conclusion to state the scope of your coverage and to formulate the question, problem, or concept your chosen material illuminates. Usually you will have the option of grouping items into sections—this helps you indicate comparisons and relationships.
You may be able to write a paragraph or so to introduce the focus of each section.The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs.
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Sep 08, · What is a literature review?
A literature review in a dissertation is a method used to gather knowledge that already exists in relation to a particular topic or problem. This information can be found in various sources, such as journal articles, books, papers, theses, and archival material/5().
A free practical Guide to assist in the crafting, implementing and defending of a graduate school thesis or dissertation.
Authored by S. Joseph Levine, Michigan State University ([email protected]). Welcome to Insights IAS Revision Plan for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam – If you are wondering why these questions are posted, please refer to the detailed Timetable provided HERE..
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