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Human Fertilization Porritt R The symmetry-breaking of egg and sperm see also p emphasizes the polarization between the sexes Although we perceive sex as a simple division into male and female rooted in fertilization, sexuality is a complex interwoven relationship with many forms of interaction more subtle and pervasive than the raw sexual urge.
To fully understand sex we thus need to appreciate this deep relationship between sex and the warp and weft of entanglement. Much of this entanglement comes from the long history of biological sex as a prisoners' dilemma relationship from which there is no escape but reproductive fertilization, except for brief periods of parthenogenesis, interrupted by cryptic sexual exchange and adaption.
Central to the dark nature of sexuality is the Edenic notion that sex is central to our downfall into the mortal coil and hence that our sexual desire is at the root of our fallibility, without which we could have become 'as Gods'.
We need to understand the source of this fallacy in coming to terms with the redemptive nature of sexuality in the perpetuity of life. Ancestral hormones and music therapy, Death, and Ecosystemic Immortality Sex is of course the source of individual organismic mortality because, rather than reproducing clonally or parthenogenetically as bacteria do, when they are not using viral or plasmid promiscuity to exchange DNA, we share only half our genes with a partner, in conceiving new offspring, rather than transmitting all our genes and hence a complete replicon of ourselves in parthenogenesis.
None our offspring will thus ever have the same genes as ourselves again in the entire history of the universe, because of sex's endless recombination.
This teeming complexity, which is central to Taoistic notions of nature never repeating itself exactly, is one of the most insightful affirmations of the power of sexual exchange in creating almost endless variety from the molecular dance of the primal ooze.
Contrasting and complementing sex's tryst with death is its role in immortal life, for sex is also our salvation in the perpetual passage of the generations. For us to come into existence at all, our living germ-line, or more appropriately germ-web has had to have run in an unbroken chain of ancestors for the entire three and a half billion years back to the first beginnings of life on Earth.
While sexuality gives every non-parthenogenetic organism a limited life-span, we thus owe our very existence to the immortal sexual genetic web. Moreover, sex is the most fundamental nemesis of selfishness, for in transmitting only half our genes, we have entered into a fundamental pact with the 'other' to share our very identity and our reproductive destinies.
To do this we must ultimately elicit the cooperation of the other, for defection once mutual becomes our collective nemesis. Thus the unmitigated selfishness of the parthenogenetic gene is compromised, cleaved to a break-even between selfishness and altruism, which remains the founding paradox of all sexual engagement.
Bacteria engage in much more radical forms of pan-sexuality than higher organisms, involving viruses and plasmids, themselves separate mobile genetic elements acting as agents of genetic transfer.
This enables the genetic sequences of bacteria, archaea and protists to move around in the genome and to be exchanged between cells, and even between different species.
This form of pan-sexuality is a mirror to our own dyadic sexuality. Sexual exchange of material can happen both through viral exchange and through a conjugation plasmid, which can spool DNA from one bacterium into another, resulting in a net donation of genes from one strain or species to another, which ensures a broad exchange of genetic material throughout bacterial ecosystems, resulting in rapid accumulation of advantageous genes exemplified by plasmid borne infectious drug resistance.
Virus-like particles speed bacterial evolution Sept 10 Bacterial pan-sexuality. Syringe-like bacteriophages injecting their DNA are capable of transferring genes between bacteria, carrying bacterial genes with them when they multiply and are released.
Some phages also integrate with the host chromosome. A positive sex-strain bacterium using plasmid sexual pili to transfer DNA simultaneously to two other bacteria.
Sexual plasmids also integrate with the host chromosome during sexual conjugation Wolfe R Because the genes driving this exchange are from a separate 'organism', a genetic plasmid, carrying its own genes and conferring male doning capacity on bacteria harbouring it, there are no bounds on exchange between the same species.
Indeed plasmid sexuality is promiscuous between many bacterial species, resulting in sharing of genetic information on a pan-sexual basis. In addition to plasmid-mediated genetic exchange, bacteria also engage extensive genetic recombination, through viral exchange, which carries genes between bacteria, as temporary additions to a viral genome.
Although some of these elements, such as the phages, are parasitic, the sexual conjugation plasmids are essential for bacterial survival and also depend on the bacteria for their existence.
The overall relationship is thus a symbiotic one of mutual genetic inter-dependence amid competition. Plasmid sexuality has resulted in major aggregations of antibiotic resistance genes onto a single plasmid in infectious drug resistance.
This view of sexuality as an ecosystemic process of sharing genetic information and providing recombination into new genomic arrangements capable of new forms of survival in new ecological niches is central to the ecosystemic foundation from which sexuality gains its immense variety. It is also important in understanding the deep relationship between sexuality as an interdependent sharing of information and variety and the dyadic form of sexuality we find in higher organisms, to which we shall now return.
However this ecosystemic sexual exchange has certain limitations. Notice that this form of sexuality is not directly linked to bacterial reproduction.
Basically it is transferring part of a single copy genome from one cell to another. It works very well at sharing key genes among many types of bacteria. It also does well at providing new types of genome, or even new species, with new combinations of existing genes, however it doesn't provide for recombining an existing genome characteristic of a given species in a way which can make new viable varieties of individual which remain viable and interfertile within a given species.
Also it is too scrambled and chaotic a process to enable the evolution of complex genomes with many chromosomes and elaborate organismic regulation which needs to be conserved. The dyadic sex of higher organisms is the enchanted loom of emergence of all living animals, plants and fungi, because the immense genetic variety produced by sexual recombination, virtually all of whose combinations are viable genomes, is what has made evolution into complex organisms possible.
If we had to rely on parthenogenetic cloning we would still be single-celled animals of unremitting genetic selfishness. The few higher species which do reproduce by parthenogenesis generally also rely on cryptic sexuality to restore variation, particularly in times of stress.
If we had had to rely only on bacterial sex, we would likewise have remained at the stage of single celled single chromosome organisms. Deborah Blum R66 notes that dyadic sex at the most basic level ensures we recombine only with a single genome of the same species and don't have to cope with the chaotic multiple agent mixing of bacterial pan-sexuality.
But what is absolutely unique about higher organismic sex is that it enables specific recombination of the variants, or alleles, of a singe gene to be recombined in ways which make for almost endless variety, while still preserving the overall organization of the genome.Somewhere in a muscle or brain cell, regeneration is not being allowed to happen.
This is the kind of biological damage you create when you don’t sleep enough, especially when you combine lack of sleep with high amounts of physical or mental activity.
Research shows that past traumas — including traumas from past lives — such as sexual abuse, growing up with divorced parents, or living with an alcoholic can be an underlying cause of chronic illness. Further, research shows that healing past traumas can help you heal from illness. I discuss melatonin’s effects on sleep & its safety with research up to ; I segue into the general benefits of sleep and the severely disrupted sleep of the modern Western world, the cost of melatonin use and the benefit (eg.
enforcing regular bedtimes), followed by a basic cost-benefit analysis of melatonin concluding that the net profit is large enough to be worth giving it a try. Ancestral Hormones and Music Therapy. AncestralHormones and Music Therapy By George Kozma Hungarian pre-war writer Antal Szerb, and his Landlady – both befriended by Marcel Proust int he Twenties – planned to publish a children’s History Book, but it.
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