The Presidential Palacein Hanoibuilt between and to house the Governor-General of Indochina French marine infantrymen in Tonkin, France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War — The federation lasted until 21 July In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of VietnamKings of Cambodiaand Kings of Luang Prabangbut in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads.
In February the British government decided to launch a military expedition, and Elliot and his cousin, George later Sir George Elliot, were appointed joint plenipotentiaries to China though the latter, in poor health, resigned in November.
Foreign traders primarily British had been illegally exporting opium mainly from India to China since the 18th century, but that trade grew dramatically from about The resulting widespread addiction in China was causing serious social and economic disruption there. In spring the Chinese government confiscated and destroyed more than 20, chests of opium—some 1, tons of the drug—that were warehoused at Canton Guangzhou by British merchants.
The antagonism between the two sides increased in July when some drunken British sailors killed a Chinese villager.
The British government, which did not wish its subjects to be tried in the Chinese legal system, refused to turn the accused men over to the Chinese courts. The British government decided in early to send an expeditionary force to China, which arrived at Hong Kong in June.
The British fleet proceeded up the Pearl River estuary to Canton, and, after months of negotiations there, attacked and occupied the city in May Subsequent British campaigns over the next year were likewise successful against the inferior Qing forces, despite a determined counterattack by Chinese troops in the spring of The British held against that offensive, however, and captured Nanjing Nanking in late Augustwhich put an end to the fighting.
Peace negotiations proceeded quickly, resulting in the Treaty of Nanjingsigned on August By its provisions, China was required to pay Britain a large indemnity, cede Hong Kong Island to the British, and increase the number of treaty ports where the British could trade and reside from one Canton to five.
The British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue Humensigned October 8,gave British citizens extraterritoriality the right to be tried by British courts and most-favoured-nation status Britain was granted any rights in China that might be granted to other foreign countries. Other Western countries quickly demanded and were given similar privileges.
The second Opium War In the mids, while the Qing government was embroiled in trying to quell the Taiping Rebellion —64the British, seeking to extend their trading rights in China, found an excuse to renew hostilities. In early October some Chinese officials boarded the British-registered ship Arrow while it was docked in Canton, arrested several Chinese crew members who were later releasedand allegedly lowered the British flag.
Later that month a British warship sailed up the Pearl River estuary and began bombarding Canton, and there were skirmishes between British and Chinese troops.
Trading ceased as a stalemate ensued. In December Chinese in Canton burned foreign factories trading warehouses there, and tensions escalated.
The French decided to join the British military expedition, using as their excuse the murder of a French missionary in the interior of China in early After delays in assembling the forces in China British troops that were en route were first diverted to India to help quell the Indian Mutinythe allies began military operations in late In May allied troops in British warships reached Tianjin Tientsin and forced the Chinese into negotiations.
The treaties of Tianjinsigned in Juneprovided residence in Beijing for foreign envoys, the opening of several new ports to Western trade and residence, the right of foreign travel in the interior of China, and freedom of movement for Christian missionaries. In further negotiations in Shanghai later in the year, the importation of opium was legalized.
The British withdrew from Tianjin in the summer ofbut they returned to the area in June en route to Beijing with French and British diplomats to ratify the treaties.
In response to the Arrow Incident, British diplomats in Canton demanded the release of the prisoners and sought redress. The Chinese refused, stating that Arrow was involved in smuggling and piracy. To aid in dealing with the Chinese, the British contacted France, Russia, and the United States about forming an alliance. The remnant opium trade primarily served Southeast Asia, but spread to American soldiers during the Vietnam War, with 20 percent of soldiers regarding themselves as addicted during the peak of the epidemic in In , China was estimated to have four million regular drug users and one million registered drug addicts. With the UNRRA / CNRRA agreement signed on October 25, , there was an assumption by CNRRA that CAT would “get moving” immediately on the airlift of food and medical needs to areas isolated (by “Reds”) from essential supplies.
The Chinese refused to let them pass by the Dagu forts at the mouth of the Hai River and proposed an alternate route to Beijing. The British-led forces decided against taking the other route and instead tried to push forward past Dagu.Opium trade, in Chinese history, the traffic that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries in which Western countries, mostly Great Britain, exported opium grown in India and sold it to China.
The British used the profits from the sale of opium to purchase such Chinese luxury goods as porcelain.
In response to the Arrow Incident, British diplomats in Canton demanded the release of the prisoners and sought redress. The Chinese refused, stating that Arrow was involved in smuggling and piracy. To aid in dealing with the Chinese, the British contacted France, Russia, and the United States about forming an alliance.
Opium was well known in China before the Opium Wars although its quality was inferior to the opium brought from India by the British.
In the s, the habit of smoking opium became popular in Formosa (now Taiwan) after Dutch sailors introduced tobacco smoking and residents of the island mixed tobacco and opium. -During Second Opium War, involved in Qing foreign policy -following death of Xianfeng in , Sushun and other regents were looking over affairs for the new young emperor Tongzhi -Cixi, Ci'an, and Prince Gong led a cout d'etat (Xinyou Coup), claiming they were the only 3 regents.
French–Vietnamese relations started in early 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de grupobittia.com this time, Vietnam was only just beginning to occupy the Mekong Delta, former territory of the Indianised kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century.
With the UNRRA / CNRRA agreement signed on October 25, , there was an assumption by CNRRA that CAT would “get moving” immediately on the airlift of food and medical needs to areas isolated (by “Reds”) from essential supplies.